Class X Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development | Important Questions

1. What are resources?

Everything that can be used to fulfil our needs provided that it is economically feasible, technologically accessible and culturally acceptable can be defined as a resource.

2. Do you believe that resources are gifts of nature as assumed by many? Justify your answer with valid arguments.

No. Resources are not gifts of nature.

While it is true that they are available in abundance on the surface of earth, they become useful only after humans convert them into usable products using their intelligence, skills or technology.

Types of Resources

1. What are potential resources?

These are resources that are available in a region but have not been utilized yet.

2. Give an example of non-renewable resource.

Fossil fuels

3. What are recyclable resources?

These are resources that can be recycled but cannot be renewed.

4. Why are natural resources important? Why it is necessary to conserve them?

Natural resources are important for the development of any country. For example, fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are used to generate energy. Likewise, resources like iron ore are used for industrial purposes.

It is important to conserve natural resources because their thoughtless and excessive consumption leads to several socio-economic and environmental problems.

Most natural resources are non-renewable. That means they are only available in a fixed quantity and once they are used up, they will not be available anymore.

Natural resources like fossil fuels take millions of years to form. Because of these reasons, it is important to conserve natural resources.

5. Distinguish between stock resource and potential resource.

Stock resource

Stock refers to things that have the potential to be useful to humans, but have not been accessed yet due to lack of appropriate technology. For example, water is made up of two inflammable gases – hydrogen and oxygen. Both gases have the potential to be used as good sources of energy; however, we do not have the technical know-how to generate energy from the components of water. Hence, water is a stock resource.

Potential resource

These are resources that are found in a particular region but have not been utilized yet. For example, the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan have enormous potential to generate electricity from wind and sun. However, these resources have not been fully harnessed. Hence, they are potential resources.

6. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources.

Biotic resources

These are resources obtained from the biosphere. They have life. Examples are: human beings, plants, animals etc.

Abiotic resources

These are resources obtained from non-living things. Examples are: rocks and metals

7. How many types of resources are available in a country?

There are different types of resources available in a country. They can be classified as follows.

On the basis of origin: biotic and abiotic.

On the basis of exhaustibility: renewable and non-renewable

On the basis of ownership: individual resources, community owned resources, national resources and international resources

On the basis of the status of development: potential resources, developed resources, stock and reserves

8. Briefly explain different types of resources on the basis of ownership.

Everything that can be used to fulfil our needs provided that it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable is a resource.

Resources can be classified on the basis of ownership.

Individual: privately owned resources belong to this category. Examples are: houses, land, well, pond etc.

Community: These are resources that are accessible to all members of the community. Examples are: grazing grounds, parks, playgrounds etc.

National: National resources belong to the nation. They include forests, wildlife, minerals, rivers, lakes

International: These resources are regulated by international institutions. Examples are marine resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone.

9. Explain the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources.

Renewable resources

These are resources that can be renewed through physical, chemical or mechanical processes.

They are available continuously. For example, sun is an inexhaustible resource of energy. Other renewable sources are water and forests.

Non-renewable resources

These cannot be renewed. They take millions of years to form. If they are used, they will be exhausted. Examples are: coal, minerals, fossil fuels

Non-renewable resources can be further classified into recyclable and non-recyclable.

Development of Resources

1. In which country was the first International Earth Summit organized?

In Brazil at Rio de Janeiro

2. What is Agenda 21? List any two principles of Agenda 21.

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Agenda 21 is the declaration signed by world leaders at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) organized at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The objective of UNCED is achieving sustainable development all over the world.

The principles of Agenda 21 are:

Combat environmental damage, poverty and disease through global cooperation.

Drafting of local Agenda 21 by every local government

3. Examine the major problems created as a result of indiscriminate consumption of natural resources.

Indiscriminate consumption of natural resources has led to their depletion. For example, fossil fuels are depleting fast.

Excessive consumption of natural resources has also led to many environmental problems like global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental degradation and water and land pollution.

Mining sites are abandoned after excavation leaving deep scars on the surface of earth.

Human activities like deforestation and overgrazing have upset the balance of nature and led to landslides, soil erosion etc.

 Resource Planning

1. What are developed resources?

These are resources which have been surveyed and whose quality and quantity have been assessed.

2. Who said ‘There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.’

Mahatma Gandhi

3. In India some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer with examples.

Yes, I agree with this statement.

States like Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.

Arunachal Pradesh has plenty of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.

Rajasthan has great potential to develop solar and wind energy but it lacks in water resources.

Assam has water resources and mineral oil deposits but it lacks in other development.

4. What are the three stages of resource planning in India?

Resource planning involves the proper utilization of resources. It has three stages.

Resource inventory

Taking inventory of resources involve surveying, mapping and estimating the quality and quantity of resources.


Evaluation involves implementing a planning strategy equipped with appropriate technology, skills and institutional set up.

The third stage involves matching the resource development plans with the overall national development plans.

5. Why is it essential to have resource planning?

Resource planning is the best strategy for the sustainable utilization of resources.

Some resources like fossil fuels are available only in a limited quantity. Hence, planning is essential to prevent the rapid depletion of such resources.

Some resources are under the exclusive control of a few individuals This prevents equitable access to such resources.

Resources are the gifts of nature. They should be used judiciously so that future generations will also have access to them.

Land resources

1. What percentage of the total land area of India is occupied by mountains?


2. Explain some uses of land resources?

  • Land supports natural vegetation and wildlife.
  • Humans build homes and other buildings on land.
  • Transport and communication systems like roads and railways are built on land.
  • Food crops and cash crops are grown on land.
  • All manufacturing activities are performed in factories built on land.

3. Write a short note on the variety of relief features in India.

India has land under various relief features such as mountains, plateaus, plains and islands.

43% of the total land area is plain. Plains are used for agricultural and industrial purposes.

Mountains account for 30% of the total land area of India. They are home to various hill stations that attract tourists. Also, most perennial rivers originate from mountains. Mountains also support diverse flora and fauna and play a crucial role in maintaining ecological balance.

Plateaus account for 27% of the total land area of India and have abundant reserves of fossil fuels, minerals and forests.

Land use pattern in India

1. What is fallow land?

Land which was not cultivated for one or less than one agricultural year is called fallow land.

2. What percentage of the total land area should ideally be under forests?


3. Why didn’t the land under forests increase much after 1960-61?

The land under forests didn’t increase much after 1960-61 due to the following reasons.

India’s population increased exponentially after 1960. The growing population needs more food and more land for building homes. Consequently, more areas of land had to be brought under cultivation and this prevented forests from growing.

The fringe areas of forests have been encroached by agricultural sectors. This also prevented forests from growing and spreading.

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After independence the government of India was more concerned about addressing socio-political and economic issues and hence it could not prioritise forest development.

4. The land under cultivation is reducing day by day. What are the consequences?

India’s population is growing but the land under cultivation is reducing. This will eventually lead to shortage of food as the growing population needs more food. Consequently, the country will have to import more foods. In addition, the agricultural sector will fail to supply enough raw materials to the industrial sector.

5. Write a short note on physical factors as well as human factors which determine the use of land in India.

Physical factors

Topography plays a crucial role in determining how land will be used. For example, rugged or rocky terrains and steep slopes are not suitable for cultivation.


Regions with extreme hot and cold temperatures are not suitable for growing crops.

Type of soil

Soil rich in humus is good for growing crops. Areas with alluvial soil are the most fertile in the country.

Human factors

Human factors affecting land use are population density, technological capability and culture and tradition.

Land degradation and conservation measures

1. Name two Indian states that suffer land degradation due to overgrazing.

Gujarat and Rajasthan

2. Which agent of erosion caused maximum land degradation in India?


3. Mention some methods to check soil erosion

Terrace farming, contour ploughing, strip cropping

4. The major cause of land degradation in Punjab is ……………………………


5. Name some states affected by land degradation caused by mining

Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh

6. Mention some human activities responsible for land degradation in India.

Excessive mining: Mining sites are abandoned after excavation and this leaves deep scars on earth. In states like Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh forests are cleared for mining and this also leads to land degradation.

Over-irrigation: Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation in states like Punjab and Haryana. Over-irrigation leads to water logging which increases the salinity and alkalinity of the soil.

Overgrazing: In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh the main cause of land degradation is overgrazing.

7. Suggest some measures to solve the problem of land degradation in India.

Vegetation covers the surface of land and protects soil fertility by preventing rain water from falling directly on the land. It also prevents soil erosion. Hence, afforestation is a great way to solve land degradation in India.

Creating shelter belts on the margins of desert areas also helps to prevent land degradation. In addition, planting thorny bushes in deserts will stabilize the shifting of sand dunes.

Bringing semi-arid areas under cultivation also prevents land degradation to a great extent.

Industrial effluents and wastes must be properly disposed as improper disposal of these wastes pollutes land and makes it unsuitable for cultivation.

Overgrazing must be controlled.

Soil as a resource

1. What sort of soil is mainly found in Maharashtra?

Black cotton soil

2. What is sheet erosion?

It is the removal of soil in thin layers caused by the flowing of rain water over large areas of land down the slope.

3. Which soil is suitable for the cultivation of cashew nuts?

Red laterite soil is suitable for the cultivation of cashew nuts.

4. Which river basin has badland and ravines?

Chambal basin

5. What is the other name of black soil?

Regur soil

6. What is strip cropping?

In strip cropping strips of grass are allowed to grow between crops. This is done to reduce the force of wind.

7. In which part of India is terrace cultivation used to stop soil erosion?

In Western and Central Himalayas, terrace cultivation is used to stop soil erosion.

8. Which soil is suitable for growing cotton?

Black soil / regur soil

9. What type of soil is found in Western Rajasthan? What are the characteristics of this soil?

In Western Rajasthan arid soil is found.

This soil is very dry. Its grains are loosely bonded and hence it cannot retain moisture.

Since plants or animals do not live in this type of soil, it is also poor in organic matter and humus.

10. Suggest some measures to control soil erosion in hilly areas?

Contour ploughing

Ploughing along the contour lines can reduce the flow of water down the slopes and thus reduce soil erosion.

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Terrace cultivation

In terrace farming, steps are cut out on the slopes to reduce erosion.

Strip cropping

In strip cropping, strips of grass are allowed to grow between crops. This breaks up the force of wind.

Shelter belts

This involves the planting of trees between crops. These shelter belts play a major role in stabilizing sand dunes in western India.

11. Describe any five characteristics of arid soil.

  • Arid soil is saline in nature and sandy in texture.
  • It is poor in organic matter and humus.
  • Because of its loosely bonded grains, it cannot hold moisture.
  • The kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons of this soil restrict the infiltration of water.
  • Arid soil can be cultivated after proper irrigation.

12. How does red soil form? In which part of India is it found?

Red soil forms on crystalline igneous rocks. In India, these soils are found in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau.

These soils get their red colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Red soil looks yellow in its hydrated form.

13. What is soil conservation?

Soil conservation is a set of strategies employed to prevent the top layer of soil from being eroded or its composition from being chemically altered due to overuse, acidification, salinization or other causes of soil contamination.

14. Explain various factors responsible for the formation of soil.

The various factors responsible for the formation of soil are:


Relief is the difference between maximum and minimum elevations within a given area. Steep slopes have thin soil layer due to erosion whereas valleys and lowlands have thick layers of fertile soil.

Parent rock

Soil is formed due to the weathering of rocks. There are different types of soil depending upon the type of rock from which they are formed.


Climate determines the extent of weathering and the amount of moisture or dryness in the soil.


Vegetation cover determines the fertility of soil. Areas under thick vegetation have more fertile soil due to the presence of huge amounts of humus in it. By contrast, desert lands have less humus and hence desert soil is not fertile.


It takes millions of years for soil to form due to various physical, chemical and organic processes.

15. From what type of rock is black soil formed?

Black soil is formed from volcanic rocks.

16. Why is black soil considered the most suitable for growing cotton?

Black soil is considered the most suitable for growing cotton because it has great capacity to hold moisture. It is also rich in minerals such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These minerals are essential for the growth of cotton. Another property of this soil is that it develops deep cracks during hot weather and that helps in the proper aeration of the soil.

17. What is the difference between Khadar and Bangar?

Khadar is the new alluvial soil rich in fine particles. It is very fertile.

Bangar is the old alluvial soil. It is not very fertile because it has high concentration of kankar nodules.

18. In India where do we find alluvial soil?

The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains.

19. What are the different types of soil found in India?

The different types of soil found in India are:

Alluvial soil

This soil is very fertile. It is formed when river systems deposit sand, silt and clay in their plains. Depending upon its age, alluvial soil can be classified as Bangar and Khadar. Bangar is the old alluvial soil and Khadar is the new alluvial soil. Alluvial soil is found in the entire northern plains and eastern coastal plains.

Red soil

This soil is formed due to the constant weathering of the old crystalline rocks. It is found in the eastern and southern parts of Deccan Plateau. This soil is not very fertile. However, it can be made productive by properly irrigating it. It is good for growing rice, millets etc.

Black soil

Black soil is formed due to the weathering and decomposition of basaltic rocks of lava plateau. It is found in the north-west Deccan plateau. It is good for growing cotton, groundnut, sugarcane etc.

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