Class X History Chapter 3 | Nationalism in India | Textbook Solutions
Here are answers to the textbook questions from chapter 3 Nationalism in India.
1. (a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
The growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to the anti-colonial movement due to the following reasons.
Their struggle with colonialism helped people discover their unity. It also brought together different groups that all shared the sense of being oppressed under colonialism. Since different classes of people felt the effects of colonialism in different ways, their notions of freedom were also different. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi Congress tried to bring these varied groups under one movement. Thus, despite the differences, different groups of people joined Indian National Congress and participated in various anti-colonial or anti-British movements.
1. (b) How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India?
The First World War created a new political and economic situation that led to the growth of National Movement in India. There was a considerable increase in the defense expenditure. War loans were taken and more taxes were imposed on people. There was an increase in customs duties as well. In addition, income tax was introduced. The increase in prices caused considerable hardships to people. There was widespread anger in rural areas against the practice of forced recruitment of soldiers. The failure of crops in 1918-19 and 1920-21 resulted in acute shortage of food. The subcontinent was also affected by influenza. According to the Census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people died in the famines and epidemics. People were hoping for an end to their hardships after the World War but that did not happen. All of these factors played a crucial role in the rise of nationalism in India.
1. (c) Explain why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act of 1919 due to the following reasons.
People hoped that when the war ended, their hardships would end and the government would take measures to improve their situation. Contrary to their belief, the government got the Rowlatt Act passed in the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of Indian members.
The Act equipped the government with great powers to suppress any political activities. As per this Act, prisoners could be detained for 2 years without trial. These provisions violated the rights safeguarding people against illegal imprisonment – trial by jury and habeas corpus. Indians regarded the Act as Black Law and decided to oppose it under Mahatma Gandhi by non-violent disobedience which started with a hartal on 6th April.
1. d) Explain why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement.
Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement because of the following reasons.
It had turned violent in many parts of the country. Gandhiji believed that Satyagrahis should be properly trained before they can participate in mass struggles. He was convinced that the country was not ready for mass struggles after the incident at Chauri-Chaura where 22 policemen were brutally killed after they fired at a procession. Incidents of violence were reported from Madras and Calcutta as well. Hence, Gandhiji decided to call off the Non-cooperation Movement.
2. What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
The idea of Satyagraha was based on the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It believed that if the cause was true and the fight was against injustice, physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. A Satyagrahi wins by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor and does not seek vengeance or resort to acts of violence. Satyagraha would persuade people including the oppressors to see the truth instead of forcing them to accept it through the use of violence. Gandhiji believed that this dharma of non-violence would unite all Indians.
3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Thousands of people who gathered for a public meeting on the 13th of April 1919, at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act were shot dead. They were allowed to assemble there peacefully and they gathered in thousands. Shortly afterwards, General Dyer marched there with armoured cars and troops. Without giving any warning to the people to disperse, he ordered firing on the unarmed people who were protesting there peacefully. Thousands of Indians died in the shooting and Dyer’s purpose in doing so was to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of Satyagrahis. This massacre turned Mahatma Gandhi into a non-cooperator.
(b) Write a newspaper report on the Simon Commission
A Commission appointed to suggest further constitutional reforms. The Government appointed the Simon Commission in 1927 to appease Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly who exposed the drawbacks of the Government of India Act of 1919. The commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon.
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