Class X History Chapter 4 | The Making Of The Global World | Extra Questions

Here are extra questions from the chapter The Making of the Global World

1. Name some problems faced by Europeans until the 19th century

Hunger and poverty

2. Which disease killed huge numbers of native inhabitants of America?

Smallpox

3. What do you mean by indentured labour?

Indentured labour or bonded labour means that a worker will work for an employer under a contract for a specific amount of time. The contract promised return travel to India after they have worked for five years on their employer’s plantation. Most indentured labourers went to work in plantations, mines or road and railway construction projects across the world.

4. What was Rinderpest?

Rinderpest was a fast spreading cattle disease that killed nearly 90% of cattle and destroyed the local economy of Africa in 1890s.

5. What is G-77?

G-77 is a group of developing countries formed in 1964 with the objective of demanding a new international economic order. When it was formed it had 77 member nations and hence it got the name G 77.

6. What is tariff?

Tariff is a tax imposed on a product imported into a country. It is levied at the point where the product enters the country. For example, tariff could be levied at the border or the airport.

7. Why is 19th century indenture described as a new system of slavery?

Indentured labourers worked under a contrast for an employer for a specific period of time – usually five years. As per the contract, the employer will bear the worker’s return travel to India at the end of the term. Oftentimes, agents who recruited workers misled them by offering false information about their final destination, modes of travel, nature of work or living conditions. Sometimes agents forcibly abducted workers less willing to migrate. Once they reached the plantations where they were supposed to work, many labourers found that the living and working conditions were extremely harsh and there were fewer legal rights.

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8. How did food pave the way for long distance cultural exchange?

Traders and travelers often introduced new foods into the countries they visited. For example, noodles traveled all the way from China to the West where it became known as spaghetti. Likewise, pasta traveled from the Arabian countries to the Italian island Sicily in 5th century. Many of the common food items that we use today such as tomatoes, chilies, potatoes, maize, groundnuts and soya were not known to our ancestors and reached Europe and Asia only after Christopher Columbus discovered America.

9. Why were Europeans attracted to Africa?

Africa was a continent rich in land and mineral resources. Also, African countries had a weak and backward military which made it easy for Europeans to conquer them. Hence, Europeans came to Africa to exploit its mineral wealth and establish plantations there.

10. State why Europeans fled to America in the 19th century.

Poverty and hunger were rampant in Europe. Cities were crowded and it was common for deadly diseases to spread fast. Religious conflicts were also common and religious dissenters were persecuted.

11. Explain the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the United States.

  • When the prices fell and the prospect of a depression loomed, American banks reduced domestic lending.
  • Farmers were unable to sell their produce.
  • Due to fall in income, many households were not able to pay back their loans. Consequently, they had to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables.
  • Lack of work caused factories to close down. A large number of industries also collapsed. Workers lost their jobs and unemployment, poverty and hunger increased.
  • Banks found it difficult to recover their investments and collect loans. Consequently, thousands of them went bankrupt.
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12. What were the steps taken by the British in West Punjab to meet their food requirements?

In order to convert the semi-desert wastelands into fertile agricultural land the British built a network of irrigation canals. This enabled them to grow wheat and cotton there. Farmers from other parts of Punjab settled in these canal colonies.

Class X History

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