Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 | Forest And Wildlife Resources | Expected Questions

The questions given below are taken from previous years’ CBSE examinations. Please review them to score good marks in your Class 10 Geography exam.

1. Briefly explain how forests help us?

Forests help us in many ways.

a) They maintain the ecological balance and also help to purify the air we breathe.
b) Forests provide habitat to various flora and fauna. Since all species of plants and animals are interdependent forests play a vital role in maintaining biodiversity which is crucial for the existence of life on this planet.
c) Forests also prevent soil erosion and thus help to maintain the fertility of the soil.
d) By allowing rain water to seep into the ground, forests help to raise the water table.

2. Briefly explain the factors responsible for the depletion of forest cover in India

Many factors are responsible for the depletion of forest cover. These include
a) Expansion of railway networks
Forests are often cleared to build railway tracks connecting the nook and corner of the country.
b) Agriculture
Due to the population explosion, the demand for food has increased and this also made it necessary to bring more land under cultivation. This led to the destruction of forests in many parts of the country.
c) Mining activities
Since many forest areas are rich in mineral resources, they are often cleared for carrying out mining activity. For example, mining activity in West Bengal destroyed large areas of forests in Sunderbans.
d) Large scale development projects
Construction of major development projects like dams often lead to the inundation of huge areas of forest land.
e) Grazing
Grazing damages habitats and native plants.
f) Fuel wood collection
The need for food and fodder often leads to the cutting down of trees.

3. Briefly explain the factors responsible for the dwindling of tiger population in India

Many factors have contributed to the declining of tiger population in India. These include:

a) Poaching for trade, shrinking of their natural habitat, depletion of prey base species and growing human population have had a detrimental effect on tigers.
b) Tiger skin is pricey and their bones are used in several traditional medicines especially in Asian countries. Both factors have led to the large scale poaching of tigers and thus led them to the verge of extinction.
c) Poaching and illegal trading of tiger skin and bones continue to flourish in countries like India and Nepal where two-thirds of the world’s surviving tigers live.

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4. Explain any three measures taken by the government for the conservation of fauna in India

The government has taken the following initiatives.

a) In 1972, the Indian Wildlife Act was implemented to protect the habitat of wild animals.
b) The government has published an all India list of protected species.
c) The government has banned hunting and provided legal protection to natural habitats of wild animals.
d) National parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been established in different parts of the country with the objective of providing protection to animals in their natural habitats.

5. Describe the important features of the Joint Forest Management Programme

The Joint Forest Management programme involves the active participation of local communities in the conservation and management of degraded forests in the country.

Local institutions and communities undertake various activities for protecting degraded forest land managed by the forest department.
Local communities are rewarded for their involvement in the protection of forests by making them beneficiaries of intermediary non-timber forest produce. They also get a share of the timber harvested from the forests they protect.

6. Mention any four major threats to the population of tigers. Explain the efforts made by the government to protect them.

The tiger population in the country has been dwindling over the decades. While there were about 55000 tigers in the country at the beginning of the twentieth century, their numbers had plummeted to about 1827 by 1973. The major threats faced by tigers are poaching for trade, shrinking of their natural habitats, depletion of prey base species and growing human population.
The government of India has undertaken various measures to protect them.
In 1973, Project Tiger was launched with the objective of protecting tigers from extinction.
The government has established several tiger reserves across the country. Together they cover an area of about 37,761 kms.
Important tiger reserves in the country are: Corbet National Park in Uttaranchal, Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala, Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal and Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan.

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7. How have human activities affected the depletion of the flora and the fauna?

(a) Habitat destruction – human activities like grazing and cultivation often lead to the destruction of natural habitats of flora and fauna
b) Hunting and poaching – Illegal trade of animal skin, bones and teeth flourish in many parts of the country. Some plant species are also exploited for their medicinal value
c) Environmental pollution – pollution caused by human activities like mining and industrialisation has destroyed many endemic species of plants and animals.

8. What is Himalayan Yew? Why is it under threat?

Himalayan Yew is a medicinal plant. The compound taxol obtained from this plant is successful at treating many forms of this cancer and it is also the largest anti-cancer drug in the world. This has led to the over exploitation of this plant and consequently, it is now under threat.

9. Define extinct species. Mention some factors that cause the fearful extinction of fauna

A species is considered extinct if it is not found after search conducted in areas where it is known or likely to be present. A species may become extinct in a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth.
Shrinking of their natural habitats and prey base depletion are the main factors leading to the extinction of fauna.

10. Distinguish between rare species and vulnerable species of animals with examples

Rare species – flora and fauna coming within this category has a small population. They may fall to the vulnerable or endangered category if negative factors affecting their survival continue to exist within their natural habitats. Examples are: desert fox and Himalayan brown bear
Vulnerable species: they are those species whose population has dwindled to levels where they are likely to move into the endangered category if factors affecting their population negatively continue to operate. Examples are: Asiatic Elephants and Gangetic dolphins

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11. Write the full form of IUCN?

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

12. Explain why we need to conserve our flora and fauna / forests and wild life.

It is important to protect our flora and fauna because:
They preserve our ecological diversity and balance
They preserve our genetic diversity
They prevent soil erosion and purifies water and soil

13. Mention the objectives of the Joint Forest Management programme

The Joint Forest Management Programme involves the active participation of local communities in the protection and restoration of degraded forest land.
In return, these communities get to enjoy benefits like access to non-timber forest produce and a share in the timber harvested from these forests.

14. Large scale development projects have contributed to the loss of forests. Explain with relevant examples.

The Narmada Sagar Project in MP led to the inundation of 40,000 hectres of forests.
Mining in West Bengal has led to deforestation
Since 1951, river valley projects have necessitated the clearing of over 5000 sq.km of forest land.

15. What has been the contribution of Indian Wildlife Protection Act for protecting habitats? Explain with examples

The Indian Wildlife Protection Act led to the establishment of national parks and wildlife activities across the country. Some of the most important among them are the Periyar Tiger Reserve, Sariska wildlife sanctuary and Corbett National Park.
It banned hunting and restricted trade in wildlife.

The natural habitats of endangered species are given legal protection from hunting and poaching.

It announced special projects for protecting species facing grave threats. For example, Project Tiger was launched to protect tigers from extinction.

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