Class X History | Chapter 1 | The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe | Important Questions
1. Who was Frederic Sorrieu?
He was a French painter.
2. Name the French artist who sketched a series of prints visualising his dreams of the world.
3. Differentiate between the concept of a modern state and a nation state. How did the sense of common identity develop in Europe?
A modern state has a clearly defined territory in which sovereign control is exercised by a centralized power. This concept had been in existence in Europe for a long time.
A nation state is one in which the majority of citizens as well as rulers develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent. This commonness was forged through the struggles for freedom and the acts of leaders and commoners alike and it did not exist from time immemorial.
The French Revolution And The Idea Of The Nation
1. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to create a sense of collective identity among French people.
2. Describe the impact of French Revolution which influenced people belonging to other parts of Europe.
French Revolution led to the emergence of liberalism and the end of feudal or traditional laws and practices in France. These events influenced people belonging to other parts of Europe.
3. What happened when the news of revolutionary events in France reached the different cities of Europe? Explain.
When the news of revolutionary events in France reached other European cities students and educated middle class started forming Jacobin clubs.
Their activities and campaigns helped French armies to enter Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s. The French armies thus carried the idea of nationalism abroad and revolutionary wars broke out everywhere.
4. After 1804 how did the peasants, artisans and new businessmen enjoy freedom in Europe?
The Napoleonic Code or the Civil Code of 1804 abolished all privileges based on birth and the feudal system. It established equality and the right to property.
The peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues. These moves boosted their self-confidence. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions in towns and enacted uniform laws for all citizens.
Internal customs duties that hampered free flow of goods were abolished and instead a uniform system of weights and measures were established.
Markets were freed and the state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods were abolished. This enabled new businessmen to expand their business.
A common national currency was approved to facilitate the movement of goods and capital from one place to another.
All of these measures brought prosperity across all classes of people.
5. What conditions were viewed as the obstacles to economic exchange and growth during Napoleon’s rule?
During 19th century, Europe faced many obstacles and challenges to economic exchange and prosperity.
(a) Population increased significantly all over Europe.
(b) People were moving in large numbers from rural areas to cities and started living in the overcrowded slums. They could not afford to fulfil even their basic needs.
(c) There was a massive increase in the unemployment. In all countries, there were more job seekers than jobs.
(d) Small producers of Europe were facing stiff competition from the cheap machine made goods exported by England.
(e) Bad harvest caused the prices of food grains to increase manifold and led to widespread poverty and famine across Europe.
6. How did the local people in the areas that were conquered by the French army react to Napoleon’s rule?
The reaction of the people conquered by Napoleon was mixed. At first, the French armies were seen as the torch bearers of liberty and people welcomed them with open arms. However, soon people realized that the new administrative system imposed by Napoleon did not guarantee them political freedom.
While Napoleon did bring some administrative reforms, their benefits were outweighed by the increase in taxes, censorship and forced conscription into the French army.
Thus, people soon lost their initial enthusiasm and began to turn hostile to the increasingly oppressive rule of Napoleon.
7. Describe the effects of French revolution.
French Revolution transferred sovereignty from monarchy to a body of French citizens.
It gave people the power to form a nation and shape their destiny.
It created the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under the same constitution.
The French Revolution established a centralized administrative system and uniform laws for all people in the French territory.
Internal customs duties and dues that hindered the flow of goods were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures were established.
French became the common language of the country. Local dialects were discouraged.
The French nation declared that it was on a mission to liberate the other people of Europe from despotism.
8. Describe some measures taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
The revolutionaries took several measures to foster a sense of collective identity among the people. These include the following:
The idea of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the concept of a united community enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen.
The body of active citizens elected the Estates General and renamed it as the national assembly.
In the name of the nation, new hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated.
A centralized administrative system was established and it formulated uniform laws for all people within the French territory.
A uniform system of weights and measures were adopted after abolishing internal customs duties and dues.
Local dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.
The Making of Nationalism in Europe
1. When was the Treaty of Vienna signed?
2. What was the primary objective of the Treaty of Vienna?
The primary objective of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was to undo the changes that occurred in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
3. Who hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1815?
4. Why did Prussia and most of the German states took the initiative to form a Customs Union in 1834?
Napoleon’s administrative reforms had converted countless small principalities into a confederation of 39 states. Each one of these states possessed its own currency and measures and weights.
The problem with this arrangement was that if a merchant had to go from Hamburg to Nuremburg, he had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a duty of about 5 percent at each one of them.
Duties were usually calculated according to the weight or measurement of the commodity. Since each state had its own system of weights and measures, this led to time consuming calculations.
The new commercial classes perceived these conditions as obstacles to economic growth and exchange and hence they recommended the creation of a unified economic territory where goods could move freely.
Hence in 1834, a Customs Union was formed at the initiative of Prussia. Later most of the German states also joined.
5. Socially and politically landed aristocracy was a dominant class in Europe in the 19th century. Explain.
Every member of the landed aristocracy followed a common way of life which united them.
They owned estates in both rural and urban areas. That means they owned much of the land.
They spoke French and it helped them to have a distinct place in high society.
It was common for aristocratic families to have marital relationships among them and those ties also united them socially.
Though they accounted for only a small proportion of the European population, they enjoyed many privileges and were a powerful class.
6. How was the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 implemented? Explain with examples.
The Treaty of Vienna was signed with the objective of undoing most of the changes that occurred in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
As part of its implementation, the Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French revolution was restored to power. France lost the territories it had annexed during the rule of Napoleon.
The Vienna Treaty led to the formation of the Kingdom of Netherlands in the north.
In the south, Geneva was added to Piedmont and Prussia was also given important new territories.
While Russia was given control of parts of Poland Austria was given northern Italy.
7. Briefly explain how Giuseppe Mazzini contributed to spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of Carbonari. He also founded two other underground societies – Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. The members of these societies were like minded young men from Poland, Italy and Germany.
He believed that nations were natural units of mankind and in his opinion the struggle for freedom required the creation of nation states.
He opposed monarchy and vehemently supported the creation of democratic republics. He did not believe in small states or kingdoms. He wanted to forge them into a large unified nation.
8. Why were European governments driven by the spirit of conservatism?
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments began to embrace the spirit of conservatism.
They believed that established traditional institutions of state and society like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, property and family should be preserved. While most of them did not want to return to the pre-revolutionary society, from the changes brought about by Napoleon they realized that modernization can strengthen many traditional institutions. They also believed that because of the modern and efficient bureaucracy and the dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom would strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
9. Why did Mazzini believe that the creation of nation-states was a necessary step in freedom struggle?
After the defeat of Napoleon, most of the revolutionaries including Mazzini wanted the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of freedom struggle.
In 1831 when Mazzini was just 24, he was sent to exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. Mazzini then founded two underground societies to help him unite the country. He believed that nations should be natural units of mankind and hence he did not want Italy to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. Instead, he wanted to forge it into a single unified republic within a larger alliance of nations. Mazzini believed that this unification would lead to Italian liberty and the prospect of economic growth and political dominance.
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