Class 8 History Chapter 2 | From Trade To Territory: The Company Establishes Power

Important questions from NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade To Territory are given here.

1. Who was the last powerful Mughal Emperor?

Aurangzeb

2. Which was the first European power to establish trading relationships with India?

The Portuguese

3. Name the Portuguese explorer who discovered the sea route to India.

Vasco da Gama

4. The year when Vasco da Gama arrived at Kappad in Kerala.

1498

5. Why did European companies trading with India fought one another?

The British were not the only European company trading with India. Before the British came, the Portuguese had already established their base in Goa. The French and the Dutch were also interested in buying goods at cheap prices from India to sell them at higher prices in Europe. Competition among these companies was intense because all of them were interested in buying the same products. As demand for Indian cotton, silk and spices increased, prices also increased. This reduced the profit these companies could gain. To increase their profits each of these companies had to eliminate their competitors. This led to fierce battles between these trading companies and it was common for them to routinely sink each other’s ships.

6. Where was the first English factory set up?

On the banks of river Hugli in 1651

7. How did East India Company begin trade in India?

East India Company established their first factory on the banks of river Hugli in 1651. As trade expanded, they encouraged merchants and traders and come and live near the factory. By 1696, they started building a fort around the settlement. Two years later they obtained zamindari rights over three villages by bribing Mughal officials. They also persuaded Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman giving them the right to trade duty free. As years went by, the company tried to press for more and more privileges and concessions. While the farman issued by Aurangzeb gave only the company the right to trade duty free, officials who were carrying out private trade also refused to pay duty although they were expected to do so. This caused huge loss of revenue for Bengal.

8. Who was the Nawab of Bengal who protested against the East India Company?

Murshid Quli Khan

9. Discuss the factors which led to confrontations between the East India Company and Nawabs of Bengal. / Briefly discuss the factors which led to the Battle of Plassey.

See also  Class 9 Tenses Gap Filling Exercise

The East India company had persuaded Aurangzeb to issue a farman that would give them the right to trade duty free. However, the farman gave only the company the right to trade duty free. Officials of the company who engaged in private trade on the side had to pay duty, but they refused to do it. This led to huge loss of revenue for Bengal and caused the Nawabs to protest. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and authority. They refused to grant any concessions to the company and insisted that the company should pay large tributes for their right to trade. They also denied the Company the right to mint coins and extend the fortifications. The company on its part claimed that the duties had to be removed for the trade to flourish. They also insisted that to expand trade, they had to buy up villages, enlarge their settlements and enlarge their forts. These conflicts led to confrontations.

10. Write a short note on the Battle of Plassey

As the Nawabs of Bengal had refused to grant any trading privileges to East India Company, confrontations between them had become common. When Alivardi Khan died in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal. The company did not want him to be the Nawab as he was powerful and against granting the company any concessions. They wanted a puppet ruler who would give them more concessions, so they tried to help one of the rivals of Sirajuddaulah to become the Nawab. However, this attempt was unsuccessful and infuriated the Nawab who asked them to stop interfering in the political affairs of his dominion. He also asked them to pay taxes and stop fortifications. After negotiations between the Nawab and the East India Company failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the Company factory at Kazzimbazar. He captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse and disarmed all English men. He then marched to Calcutta to seize the Company’s fort there. When news of the fall of Calcutta reached Madras, Company officials there sent forces under the command of Robert Clive. Negotiations followed but when they failed Robert Clive led Company’s army against Sirajuddaulauh at Plassey in 1757. The Nawab was defeated because the forces led by one of his commanders, Mir Jafar, did not fight the battle. Clive had earned his support by promising to make him the Nawab after defeating Sirajuddaulah.

See also  Jumbled Words Worksheet For Class 8

11. When was the Battle of Buxar fought?

The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764.

12. Which battle was fought between Mir Qasim and East India Company?

Battle of Buxar

13. Which battle reinstated Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal?

Battle of Buxar

14. When did East India Company become the Diwan of the province of Bengal?

1765

15. How did the Diwani of Bengal helped East India Company?

After the death of Mir Jafar in 1765, the Mughal Emperor appointed East India Company as the Diwan of Bengal. This Diwani helped the company to take advantage of the vast revenue resources of Bengal. Earlier they had to buy goods in India with the gold and silver imported from Britain. Now after attaining Diwani, they had their own revenue sources in India which they could use to buy goods, maintain company troops and meet the expense of building company fort and offices in Calcutta.

16. What is subsidiary alliance?

This was a strategy that the Company used to subjugate Indian states and acquire territory. As per the terms of subsidiary alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their own independent army. They were to be protected by the Company, but they had to pay for the ‘subsidiary forces’ that the company maintained for their protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, parts of their territory were taken by the Company.

17. How did Awadh and Hyderabad lost half of their territory to the Company?

The Nawab of Awadh and Hyderabad failed to pay subsidiary alliance to the Company and hence half of their territory was taken by the Company.

18. How did Tipu Sultan anger the East India Company?

Tipu Sultan ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1782 to 1799. Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar coast from where the Company purchased pepper and cardamom. In 1785, Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of kingdom. He also disallowed local merchants from trading with East India Company. In addition, he established a close relationship with the French in India and modernised his army with their help.

See also  Phrasal Verbs Worksheet For Class 8

19. Write a brief note on the Battle of Seringapatanam

The Battle of Seringapatanam was the last of the four Anglo-Mysore wars in which Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, was defeated and killed by the British. After the battle of Seringapatanam, Mysore was placed under Wodeyars, the former rulers of the state, and a subsidiary alliance was imposed on the state.

20. The third Battle of Panipat was fought in

1761

21. The Third Battle of Panipat was between ……………………. and ……………………….

Marathas and Afghans

22. How did East India Company gain control of the territories south of the Vindhyas?

The Marathas fought several wars with the British. In the first war, there was no clear winner. The British gained Orissa, Agra and Delhi after winning the second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-05). The British completely crushed the Marathas in the third Anglo-Maratha war. The Peshwa was sent to Bithur near Kanpur with a pension. Thus, the East India Company gained complete control of the territories south of the Vindhyas.

23. Who was the Governor General who introduced the policy of paramountcy?

Lord Hastings

24. Briefly explain the policy of paramountcy

The policy of paramountcy made East India Company the paramount authority in the country. Its power was greater than that of Indian states. In order to protect its interests, the company even had the power to annex or threaten to annex any Indian kingdom.

25. Who introduced the Doctrine of Lapse?

Lord Dalhousie

26. Briefly explain the Doctrine of Lapse

As per the Doctrine of Lapse, if an Indias ruler died without a male heir, his kingdom would lapse and become part of the Company territory. By simply applying this doctrine, the company annexed Satara, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur and Jhansi.

27. What were Presidencies?

Presidencies were administrative units under the British rule. The three Presidencies were Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Each one of these Presidencies were ruled by a Governor. The Supreme head was the Governor-General.

28. Who was the first Governor General of India?

Warren Hastings

29. Who was the Collector under the British rule?

The principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector. His main duty was to collect taxes and revenues and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges and police officers. His office Collectorate was the new centre of power.

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *