NCERT Class 7 History | Chapter 2 | New Kings And Kingdoms | Expected Questions

Here are expected questions from chapter 2 of class 7 NCERT history.

Class 7 History Chapter 2 | New Kings And Kingdoms

1. Who are samanthas?

Samanthas are big landlords or warrior chiefs whom existing kings acknowledged as their subordinates.

2. What was expected of samanthas?

Samanthas were expected to bring gifts to kings and be present in their courts. They were also required to provide the king with military support.

3. Who were maha-samanthas or maha-mandaleshwaras?

Samanthas were big landlords or warrior chiefs and when they became more powerful or wealthier, they started declaring themselves as maha-samanthas or maha-mandaleshwaras.

4. Name the place ruled by Rashtrakudas


5. Chalukyas ruled over ………………………..


6. Rashtrakudas were initially samanthas of ………………………….


7. Name the Rashtrakuda chief who overthrew the Chalukya King


8. Name the Rashtrakuda chief who performed the ritual Hiranya-garbha?


9. What is the significance of the Hiranya-garbha ritual?

When this ritual is performed by Brahmins, it is believed that it leads to the rebirth of the sacrificer as a Kshatriya even if he was not born a Kshatriya. The Rashtrakuda chief Dandidurga performed this ritual after overthrowing the Chalukya king and declared himself the king.

10. Name the Brahmana who established kingdom in Karnataka

Kadamba Mayurasharman

11. Name the Brahmana who established his kingdom in Rajasthan

Gurjara Pratihara Harichandra

12. What was the source of revenue for kingdoms in the 7th century?

Kings often claimed that they owned the land and resources were obtained from peasants, cattle keepers and artisans. They were encouraged and sometimes even forced to surrender a part of their produce as ‘rent’ due to the king who owned the land. Revenue was also collected from traders.

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13. What was vetti?

Vetti was a kind of tax that was prevalent in Tamil Nadu during the reign of Cholas. It was a form of forced labour.

14. What was kadamai?

Kadamai was a form of land tax in Tamil Nadu during the reign of Cholas.

15. What are prashastis?

Prashastis described the achievements of the ruler. They were composed by learned Brahmanas and often contained exaggerated details of the king’s powers and accomplishments. While they do not always contain factually correct details, they tell us how the kings wanted to depict themselves.

16. Write a short note on land grants

Kings used to reward Brahmanas with grands of land. These land grants were recorded on copper plates and given to those who received the land. These copper plates were held together by a ring which had the royal seal on it.

17. Name the twelfth century poet who wrote a poem about the kings who ruled over Kashmir


18. Who is the author of Rajatharangini?


19. In what way is Kalhana’s Rajatharangini different from Prashastis?

While Prashastis were full of praise for the kings in whose honour they were composed, Kalhana was critical of the rulers and their policies in his work on the history of Kashmir.

20. Write a short note on tripartite struggle?

Dynasties were typically based in a specific region. However, they also tried to control other areas. Kannauj in the Ganga Valley was one such place that rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties wanted to control. For centuries they fought for this city and since there were three ‘parties’ in this conflict, it is often termed tripartite struggle.

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21. Name the ruler of Afghanistan who raided Indian subcontinent in the 11th century

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni

22. Which temple was looted by Mahmud of Ghazni?

Somnath Temple in Gujarat

23. Name the scholar whom Mahmud of Ghazni entrusted with the task of writing an account of the Indian subcontinent


24. Name the Arabic work of Al Biruni

Kitab ul-Hind

25. The Chauhans or Chahamanas ruled over which region?

Delhi and Ajmer

26. Who defeated Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191?

Prithviraja III

27. Who defeated Prithviraja III in 1192?

Muhammad Ghori

28. How did Cholas come to power?

The Kaveri delta was under the control of a chiefly family called Muttaraiyar. They were samanthas (subordinates) of the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. In the middle of the 9th century, Kaveri delta was captured from Muttaraiyar by Vijayalaya who belonged to the chiefly family of Cholas. He built the town of Thanjavur and a temple for Goddess Nishumbhasudini. Successors of Vijayalaya then expanded their kingdom by conquering Pandyas of the south and Pallavas of the north.

29. Who is known as the most powerful Chola ruler?

Rajaraja I

30. Name the Chola ruler who developed a navy for their expeditions to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia

Rajendra I

31. Which Chola king raided countries in South East Asia?

Rajendra I

32. Who built the temples of Gangaikonda Cholapuram?

King Rajendra I

33. Name the significance of temples during the Chola period

The temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram are architectural marvels built by the Chola kings. During the reign of Cholas, the temples were the nuclei around which human settlements grew. These temples were also the centres of craft production. The kings as well as others used to endow the temples with land. The produce of this land was used to pay the people who worked at the temple and lived near it. In other words, in addition to being places of worship, the temples were the hub of economic, social and cultural activities.

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34. What was the main craft associated with Chola temples?

The making of bronze statues was the main craft associated with Chola temples. The statues were images of the deities and sometimes of devotees as well.

35. Write a short note on agriculture and irrigation during the Chola period

The Chola period witnessed several new advancements in agriculture. Large scale cultivation in Tamil Nadu started in the 5th or 6th century. For this purpose, forests were cleared and land was levelled. Embankments were built in the delta region to prevent flooding and canals were built to carry water to the fields. It was common two grow two crops in a year. A variety of methods were used for irrigation. While in some areas, wells were dung, in other areas huge tanks were built for collecting rain water. Rulers as well as people took keen interest in these activities.

36. What is Ur?

Ur are settlements of peasants. When irrigation started, these Urs became prosperous.

37. What is Nadu?

A nadu is a group of Urs or peasant villages. In a nadu, the village council performed many administrative duties such as collecting taxes and dispensing justice.

38. What is Brahmadeya?

Brahmadeya is land granted to Brahmanas.

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