NCERT solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 are given below.
Textbook page number: 48
Class 8 Geography: Chapter 4 – Agriculture
1. Answer the following questions
(i) What is agriculture?
Answer: Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing of livestock. Agriculture is a primary activity and favourable climate and fertile soil are crucial for agricultural activity.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture
Answer: The topography and fertility of the soil and the climate are the two main factors that influence agriculture. Crops need fertile soil, adequate rainfall and plenty of sunlight to grow well.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
In the thickly forested areas of tropical Africa, Amazon basin and Northeast India, farmers practice a special form of agriculture called shifting cultivation. They would clear a piece of land by felling the trees. The felled trees are then burnt and ashes are mixed into the soil. Crops like yam, potatoes, cassava and maize are grown in these farms. When the soil loses its fertility, they will abandon the land and move to another plot. The major disadvantage of shifting cultivation is that it leads to deforestation and soil erosion. It is also highly labor intensive. The farmer has to prepare the land every time he wants to grow crops. In addition, this method of farming is not suitable for producing crops in large quantities.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Answer: Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, sugarcane, coffee, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. Large amounts of labor and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself. Brazil has large plantations of coffee and India has large plantations of tea.
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Answer: Cotton and jute are the chief fibre crops. Cotton requires light rainfall, bright sunshine, high temperature and at least 210 frost free days for optimum growth. It grows on black and alluvial soil. Jute requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. It grows well on alluvial soil.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
a) growing of fruits and vegetables
b) primitive farming
c) growing of wheat
Answer: growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity
Answer: India is a developing country with a large population and here two-thirds of the population still depends on agriculture. Most farmers in India practice intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small pieces of land mostly for subsistence. Commercial farming is not practiced here and most farmers simply take their produce to the mandi and sell it even when the prices are low. Since the farmer only grows crops and is not involved in its commercial trade or processing, agriculture in India is considered as a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions
Answer: The crops grown in a particular region depends upon several factors such as the topography of the soil, demand for the produce, availability of technology and climate. Different crops require different types of soil and climatic conditions. For example, rice requires high temperature, high humidity and heavy rainfall available in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Wheat, on the other hand, requires moderate temperature and rainfall.
4. Distinguish between the following
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Primary activities include all those activities connected with the extraction and production of natural resources. Fishing and farming are good examples of primary activities.
Tertiary activities support the primary and secondary activities through services. Tertiary activities play an important role in taking the goods produced through primary and secondary activities to the end user. Examples of tertiary activities include trade, advertising, banking and transport.
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming
Subsistence farming is the type of farming practiced to meet the needs of the farmer and his family.
Intensive farming is a kind of subsistence farming in which the farmer cultivates a small piece of land using simple tools and manual labour. The farmer may grow two or three crops in a year on the same land. This type of farming is mainly practiced in the thickly populated areas of south, southeast and east Asia.