European Space Agency | World Organizations

General Science
The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space. It has 17 member states at the moment. ESA has its headquarters in Paris. ESA has a staff of about 1,900 with an annual budget of about 3 billion euros in 2006. ESA's spaceport is the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, a site chosen because it is close to the equator from which commercially important orbits are easier to access. During the 1990s ESA gained the position of market leader in commercial space launches and in recent years ESA has established itself as a major player in space exploration. Goals and aims ESA has ambitious space plans that may be divided into three large categories: a) maintain its scientific and…
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Polar bears are in trouble because Arctic ice is melting

General Science
Alaskan polar bears have mastered the art of living in ice. Even during the frigid days of winter, these furry white creatures don't hibernate in cozy dens, like other bears do. Instead, they go north, hunting for seals living in the ice-covered water. [caption id="attachment_29" align="alignnone" width="220"] Polar Bear[/caption] In recent years, however, Earth's climate has been getting warmer, and ice near the Poles has been melting. Now, a new study shows that disappearing ice is changing polar bear behavior. For instance, more than half of pregnant polar bears used to give birth in dens on solid blocks of ice that were floating out at sea. Today, they're digging their dens on or near land. The reason? Most of the ice has disappeared. Studies have shown that 27 percent of sea…
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What are comets?

General Science
Astronomers recently watched a comet break into pieces, practically before their eyes. Their observations, reported by scientists at Johns Hopkins University, have given them surprising insight into the structure of these space objects. What are comets? Comets are fairly small (about 12 miles across or less) balls of ice, rock, and dust. They make long, non-circular orbits around the sun. When a comet comes close to the sun, the star's heat melts some of it, creating what looks like a tail. At this stage, it looks somewhat like a tadpole. Comets sometimes burst into pieces when the sun's heat turns their ice into water vapor. Until a few years ago, scientists thought that a comet's center would be different from its surface. That's because comets probably formed at the same…
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December 23 | This day in history

General Knowledge
Former Indian Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh was born on December 23, 1902. He was Deputy Prime Minister in the Morarji Desai government that assumed office in 1977. In 1979 Morarji Desai resigned as Prime Minister. Charan Singh was sworn in as the next PM on July 28, 1979. He held the office of Prime Minister until January 14, 1980. Of all the Indian Prime Ministers, Charan Singh had the shortest tenure. Charan Singh started his life as a farmer. His birthday (December 23) is now celebrated as National Farmer’s Day. His Samadhi (the place where he is laid to rest) is called Kisan Ghat. December 23 is also the day when two other prominent Indian politicians died. PV Narashimha Rao who become the Prime Minister of India after the…
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Major Events That Took Place on December 25

General Knowledge
People all over the world celebrate Christmas, the birthday of Jesus Christ, on December 25. Actually, 25th December is a monumental day. A lot of events having both national and international importance took place on this day. Here are some of them. Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant who traveled around the world, set his foot in China for the first time on December 25, 1275. Joan of Arc, whom the French consider as a national heroine, became the Queen of Orleans on December 25, 1430. She played a crucial role in the Hundred Years’ War and was later canonized as a Roman Catholic Saint. John Calvin, the French theologian and father of the theological system called Calvinism became the pastor of the Protestant Reformation on December 25, 1536. Famous spiritual…
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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 15 | Some Natural Phenomena

Class 8 NCERT Solutions
Class 8 Science Chapter 15 | Some Natural Phenomena Select the correct option in questions 1 and 2. 1. Which of the following cannot be charged easily by friction? a) A plastic scale b) A copper rod c) An inflated balloon d) A woolen cloth Answer: A copper rod Reason Copper is a highly conductive material. Generally speaking, objects that get charged by frictions are bad conductors of electricity. 2. When a glass rod is rubbed with a piece of silk cloth the rod a) and the cloth both acquire positive charge b) becomes positively charged while the cloth has a negative charge c) and the cloth both acquire negative charge d) becomes negatively charged while the cloth has a positive charge Answer: becomes positively charged while the cloth has a…
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NCERT Science Solutions for Class 8 – Chapter 14 – Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Class 8 NCERT Solutions
Chemical effects of electric current NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 14 are given below. Question 1. Fill in the blanks. a) Most liquids that conduct electricity are solutions of…………………., ……………….. and …………………. Answer: acids, bases and salts b) The passage of an electric current through a solution causes ……………………. effects. Answer: chemical c) If you pass current through copper sulphate solution, copper gets deposited on the plate connected to the ……………………. terminal of the battery. Answer: negative d) The process of depositing a layer of any desired metal on another material by means of electricity is called …………………. Answer: electroplating Question 2. When the free ends of a tester are dipped into a solution, the magnetic needle shows deflection. Can you explain the reason? Answer: The deflection of…
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Class 8 NCERT Solutions for Biology Chapter 9 | Reproduction in Animals

Class 8 NCERT Solutions
Science Chapter 9 Reproduction in animals NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 9 are given below. 1. Explain the importance of reproduction in organisms. Answer: Reproduction is essential for the continuation of a species. If organisms didn’t reproduce, their species would become extinct. 2. Describe the process of fertilization in human beings. In human beings fertilization occurs when sperms released by the testes of the male come in contact with the ova (egg) released by the ovaries of the female. The egg gets fertilized when one of the sperms fuse with it. During fertilization, the nuclei of the sperm and the nuclei of the egg fuse to form a single nucleus. This process results in the formation of a fertilized egg or zygote. It is this zygote that grows…
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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Solutions

Class 8 NCERT Solutions
NCERT solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 are given below. Textbook page number: 48 Class 8 Geography: Chapter 4 – Agriculture 1. Answer the following questions (i) What is agriculture? Answer: Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing of livestock. Agriculture is a primary activity and favourable climate and fertile soil are crucial for agricultural activity. (ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture Answer: The topography and fertility of the soil and the climate are the two main factors that influence agriculture. Crops need fertile soil, adequate rainfall and plenty of sunlight to grow well. (iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages? In the thickly forested areas of tropical Africa, Amazon basin and Northeast India, farmers practice a special form of…
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